Main Representative Publications
Autophagy regulates DUOX1 localization and superoxide production in airway epithelial cells during chronic IL-13 stimulation.
Redox Biol. 2017 Sep 22;14:272-284
Authors: Dickinson JD, Sweeter JM, Warren KJ, Ahmad IM, De Deken X, Zimmerman MC, Brody SL
The airway epithelium is a broad interface with the environment, mandating well-orchestrated responses to properly modulate inflammation. Classically, autophagy is a homeostatic pathway triggered in response to external cellular stresses, and is elevated in chronic airway diseases. Recent findings highlight the additional role of autophagy in vesicle trafficking and protein secretion, implicating autophagy pathways in complex cellular responses in disease. Th2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-4, are increased in asthma and other airway diseases contributing to chronic inflammation. Previously, we observed that IL-13 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) in airway epithelial cells in an autophagy-dependent fashion. Here, we tested our hypothesis that autophagy is required for IL-13-mediated superoxide production via the NADPH oxidase DUOX1. Using a mouse model of Th2-mediated inflammation induced by OVA-allergen, we observed elevated lung amounts of IL-13 and IL-4 accompanied by increased autophagosome levels, determined by LC3BII protein levels and immunostaining. ROS levels were elevated and DUOX1 expression was increased 70-fold in OVA-challenged lungs. To address the role of autophagy and ROS in the airway epithelium, we treated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial cells with IL-13 or IL-4. Prolonged, 7-day treatment increased autophagosome formation and degradation, while brief activation had no effect. Under parallel culture conditions, IL-13 and IL-4 increased intracellular superoxide levels as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Prolonged IL-13 activation increased DUOX1, localized at the apical membrane. Silencing DUOX1 by siRNA attenuated IL-13-mediated increases in superoxide, but did not reduce autophagy activities. Notably, depletion of autophagy regulatory protein ATG5 significantly reduced superoxide without diminishing total DUOX1 levels. Depletion of ATG5, however, diminished DUOX1 localization at the apical membrane. The findings suggest non-canonical autophagy activity regulates DUOX1-dependent localization required for intracellular superoxide production during Th2 inflammation. Thus, in chronic Th2 inflammatory airway disease, autophagy proteins may be responsible for persistent intracellular superoxide production.
PMID: 28982074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Commentary: Thyrotropin Stimulates Differentiation Not Proliferation of Normal Human Thyrocytes in Culture.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017;8:214
Authors: Kyrilli A, Paternot S, Miot F, Corvilain B, Vassart G, Roger PP, Dumont JE
PMID: 28890710 [PubMed]
Thyroid lobectomy is an effective option for unilateral benign nodular disease.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Oct;85(4):602-8
Authors: Lytrivi M, Kyrilli A, Burniat A, Ruiz Patino M, Sokolow Y, Corvilain B
OBJECTIVE: The use of thyroid lobectomy in the treatment of unilateral, benign nodules is limited by the potential of nodular recurrence in the remaining lobe. This study aimed to assess the rate and clinical impact of nodular recurrence in the contralateral lobe after thyroid lobectomy and to identify predictive factors of recurrence.
DESIGN: Single-centre retrospective study.
PATIENTS: Records of patients that underwent lobectomy for unilateral thyroid nodules between 1991 and 2010 were reviewed and 270 patients were included. Exclusion criteria were: presence of contralateral nodule(s) ≥5 mm on preoperative ultrasound, diagnosis of cancer necessitating completion thyroidectomy or pseudonodules. Recurrence was defined as the occurrence of nodule(s) ≥5 mm in the remaining lobe on at least one postoperative ultrasound. A set of clinical, imaging, histological and biochemical parameters was tested as predictors of recurrence using logistic regression.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 78 months (range, 12-277 months), the global recurrence rate was 42% and recurrence of nodules of a size ≥1 cm occurred in 19%. Reoperation rate was 1·1%. 90% of patients were treated postoperatively by levothyroxine. Median time to nodular recurrence was 4 years. Preoperative contralateral lobe volume and resected thyroid weight were identified as significant predictors of recurrence (P = 0·045 and P = 0·03 respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid lobectomy is an effective therapeutic strategy for unilateral, benign nodules, resulting in a low rate of clinically relevant nodular relapse in a mildly iodine-deficient area. Patients with uninodular disease and a contralateral lobe of normal size are particularly good candidates for lobectomy.
PMID: 27106627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]